Science Div" was added. Science teaching at Winchester had a high reputation: For much of the 20th century the senior forms were divided among three "ladders": There was also a vertical division, in descending order, into Sixth Book equivalent to the sixth form at other schools , Senior Part, Middle Part and Junior Part: The school now offers a wide range of subjects, and no longer has a system of ladders. In addition to normal lessons, all boys throughout the school are required to attend a class called Division Div for short which focuses on parts of history, literature, and politics that do not lead to external examinations; its purpose is to ensure a broad education that does not focus solely on examinations.
Exam results are In , GCSE results were Chemistry and physics are the most popular Pre-U subjects, closely followed by history and English literature. Philosophy and theology are also popular. There is no great number of GCSE choices either: Situated on the south side of Chamber Court, the chapel is part of the original college buildings and retains its original wooden fan-vaulted ceiling. Built to accommodate just over people, it long ago became too small to accommodate the whole school currently boys.
Additional seating installed in the re-ordering and extension carried out by the Victorian architect Butterfield allows the chapel to seat people. A striking feature of the chapel is its stained glass. The East window depicts the stem of Jesse. Little of the original medieval glass, designed by Thomas Glazier , survives. A firm of glaziers in Shrewsbury was tasked with cleaning the glass in the s.
At that time there was no known process for cleaning the badly deteriorated glass and so it was copied, while most of the original glass was scattered or destroyed.
Some pieces have been recovered. The south west corner holds the largest piece, bought and donated by Kenneth Clark. Until Victorian times the chapel was divided into a chapel and ante-chapel, and had decorative panelling. This panelling was recovered by the school in the s and used in the building of New Hall, the school concert hall, the design of which was specifically planned so as to house it.
The Chapel Choir sings regular services in the Chapel, as well as other venues. The exterior of the Chapel and the Hall underwent extensive restoration of the stonework at the end of the twentieth century. Situated to the west of Meads, this cloister serves as a memorial to the Wykehamist dead of the two World Wars. It was designed by Sir Herbert Baker and dedicated in and again in War Cloister occupies a strategic position on Kingsgate Street accessed via "South Africa Gate", which commemorates the Wykehamist dead of the — Boer War , so that most Commoners go through it on their way to and from class.
Another older war memorial in the school is the entry chamber to Chapel, known as "Crimea" after the Crimean War of , and bearing the names of Wykehamists who died at the siege of Sebastopol. Traditionally there were always 18 prefects in College, though since the midth century there have been fewer, 10 to 14 being typical.
Of these, five later increased to six hold salaried offices. Historically, these were as follows, in descending order of seniority:. The post of Jun: This is the revival of an ancient office, which was suppressed in the 19th century when the office of Bib: The duties were to do with catering, especially the disposal of uneaten food from College lunch, which was collected in a special wooden vat and given to the poor. This vat or tub is still on display in College Hall.
Each Officer, in addition to his specialized duties, has charge of a College Chamber day-room. Thus when IVth Chamber was reopened, increasing the number of chambers to six, a sixth Officer was created, the Coll: The post had previously existed informally, but the holder used not to rank as an Officer.
Formerly, there were one or two originally five further prefects "in full power", invariably, though improperly, known as Co: Praes had authority throughout the school; the remaining prefects had authority only in College. Nowadays, while there are still six officers, they have little to do with the running of the school and are mainly responsible for their respective chambers, and there are no other College Co: In practice, only the Prefect of Hall has significant duties outside College.
The present practice is for all fifth-years in College to be prefects. Each officer nominates a prefect from those members of his year who are not officers to act as his deputy within his chamber; any prefects left over are sometimes known as "Jemimas" reason unknown.
The seven senior inferiors non-prefects in College are known as Custodes Candelarum tollykeepers , but this is a purely nominal dignity.
The next senior person in a chamber after the prefects and tollykeepers was once known as the in loco , and kept the accounts for Chamber Tea. Outside College there is a Sen: There are then a number of Co: Nowadays, there is generally only one Co: However, in the house where the "Sen: In addition, each house has a number of House Prefects, with authority only in that house.
Praes heads of houses meet weekly together with the Prefect of Hall and Head Master to discuss the running of the school. A notion is a manner or tradition peculiar to Winchester College. The word notion is also used to refer to unique and peculiar words used with diminishing frequency in the school. The Notions Test was until recently an important tradition in most houses, in which juniors were required to answer questions about notions.
Although now banned on various grounds including the European human rights conventions, the test was usually administered to new boys during their first term at the school by more senior boys, and aimed to test and demonstrate their familiarity with the vocabulary, history and traditions of the school. College Notions was more elaborate and continued for a few years longer than the Commoner tests. It took the form of an end-of-term celebration and marked the point at which new Collegemen formally became known as Jun: It is played in Common Time the spring term , the main game in Short Half the autumn term being Association football.
In Cloister Time the summer term the main sports are tennis and cricket. For example, the ball can only be carried, like in rugby, if caught full toss. Furthermore, no football-type "dribbling" is allowed since the player may not touch the ball more than once at a time.
Neither can the ball be passed to a team-mate, except by back-heeling to a teammate behind. Furthermore, a player who finds himself upfield must return to the point at which his teammate last kicked the ball before being able to join in the game again, unless in the interim an opposite player has touched the ball.
The current form of the game can be played by teams of 6, 9, 10, 11, or At birth, each person became a member of the clan of his or her mother. Within a tribe, each clan was led by the clan mother, who was usually the oldest woman in the group. In consultation with the other women, the clan mother chose one or more men to serve as clan chiefs. Each chief was appointed for life but the clan mother and her advisors could remove him from office for poor behavior or dereliction of duty.
Traditionally, a man and woman wishing to marry would tell their parents, who would arrange a joint meeting of relatives to discuss the suitability of the two people for marriage to each other.
If no objections arose during the discussion, a day was chosen for the marriage feast. Then the two began their new life together. In ancient times adultery was rare. When it was discovered, the woman was punished by whipping, but the man was not punished. If a couple decided to separate, both of their families would be called to a council. The parties would state their reasons for wanting a divorce, and the elders would try to work out a reconciliation.
If those efforts failed, the marriage ended. In ancient times, fathers kept their sons and mothers kept their daughters when a divorce occurred; by the early eighteenth century, however, mothers typically kept all of the children. Children were valued among the Iroquois; because of the matrilineal society, daughters were somewhat more prized than sons. The couple stayed there a few days, and then returned to their own home to prepare another feast. Birthing took place in a hut located outside the village.
As her time drew near, the mother and a few other women withdrew to the hut and remained there until a few days after the birth. Until he was able to walk, an Iroquois baby spent his days secured to a cradleboard, which his mother would hang from a tree branch while she worked in the fields.
Babies were named at birth; when the child reached puberty, an adult name was given. Names referred to natural phenomena such as the moon or thunder , landscape features, occupations, and social or ceremonial roles; animal names were very rare.
Some examples of the meanings of names are: A person was never addressed by his name during conversation; when speaking about a person, especially to a relative, the name was only used if he could not otherwise be clearly identified by terms of relation or the context of the discussion.
Mothers had primary responsibility for raising their children and teaching them good behavior. In keeping with the easy-going nature of Haudenosaunee society, children learned informally from their family and clan elders.
Children were not spanked, but they might be punished by splashing water in their faces. Difficult children might be frightened into better behavior by a visit from someone wearing the mask of Longnose, the cannibal clown. Puberty marked the time of acceptance into adult membership in the society. On the occasion of her first menses, a girl would retire to an isolated hut for the duration of her period.
She was required to perform difficult tasks, such as chopping hardwood with a dull axe, and was prohibited from eating certain foods. The period of initiation for a young man was more lengthy; when his voice began to change, he went to live in a secluded cabin in the forest for up to a year.
An old man or woman took responsibility for overseeing his well-being. He ate sparsely, and his time was spent in physically demanding activities such as running, swimming, bathing in icy water, and scraping his shins with a stone.
His quest was completed when he was visited by his spirit, which would remain with him during his adult life. An Anthology [Ohsweken, Ontario: Iroqrafts Ltd, ] p. The Census found that 60 percent of the Iroquois over the age of 25 were high school graduates, and nine percent were college graduates. Iroquois children attending reservation schools learn not only the subjects typically taught at non-Indian schools, but also study their tribal culture and history.
Gale Research, ] p. From ancient times the Haudenosaunee believed that a powerful spirit called Orenda permeated the universe. He created everything that is good and useful. The Evil Spirit made things that are poisonous, but the Great Spirit gained control of the world. During the seventeenth century, French Jesuit missionaries converted many of the Iroquois to Catholicism.
Kateri Tekakwitha, who was baptized in , became the first Native American nun. She was extraordinarily devout; since her death many visions and miraculous cures have been attributed to her intervention. She was beatified by the Catholic Church in and is a candidate for canonization to sainthood. The "Blessed Kateri" is revered at the feasts and celebrations of many Native American nations, particularly those who have incorporated Catholicism into their spiritual belief systems.
In three Mohawk chiefs, along with another from the Mahicans, visited Queen Anne in England to ask for military assistance against the French and for Anglican missionaries to teach their people.
As the years passed, Quakers, Baptists, Methodists, and an interdenominational Protestant group called the New York Missionary Society joined the effort of proselytizing the Iroquois. An intense rivalry developed between the pagan and Christian factions. In fact, in a group of Oneidas led by Eleazar Williams, a Mohawk from Canada who had become an Episcopalian minister, left their New York homeland and moved to Wisconsin, where they established a reservation.
In , amidst the Christian missionary efforts, a revival of the ancient Longhouse religion developed. A Seneca known as Handsome Lake had spent much of his life in dissolute living and fell gravely ill when he was about 65 years old. He expected to die, but instead, he experienced a profound vision and recovered. Inspired, he began to spread the Good Word among his fellow Iroquois. The New Religion was essentially a revitalization of the ancient pagan beliefs, although some Quaker influence can be detected.
Major tenets of the New Religion included shunning of alcoholic beverages, abandonment of beliefs in witchcraft and love potions, and denunciation of abortion. The religion was instrumental in showing many Iroquois how to retain their own culture while adapting to a world dominated by non-Indians. The Longhouse religion continues to be a major spiritual focus among the Iroquois people. Some adhere solely to its practice, while others maintain a parallel membership in a Christian church.
Census data from show that two-thirds of the Iroquois people lived in urban areas. About half of those living outside urban settings actually lived on reservations. Ties to the homeland and the tribal culture are strong, however, and those who live off the reservation return from time to time to visit relatives and to spiritually renew themselves. In a modern rendition of their ancient sojourns away from the village to hunt, Iroquois men today may support their families by living and working in a city but returning home periodically.
In particular, there is a cohesive group of Indians, including many Mohawk, living in Brooklyn during the week but returning to their families on weekends.
Iroquois men, especially Mohawk, are famous as ironworkers in construction. They walk steel girders high in the air unhampered by any fear of heights. Consequently, they are in demand around the country for skyscraper and bridge building projects, which have included such landmarks as the World Trade Center and the Golden Gate Bridge.
Fathers pass their ironworking tools on to their sons or sometimes daughters in an atmosphere reminiscent of ancient rituals. The census indicated that about nine percent of the employed Iroquois were engaged in construction, although over half of the men of the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation are members of the ironworker union. Factory work was actually the largest occupation, accounting for one-fourth of the jobs held by Iroquois people. Nineteen percent of the employed Iroquois worked in "professional and related services," including health and education.
Another 13 percent were engaged in retail trade. Richards of Cornell University conducted an acculturation study focusing on the Onondaga tribe during the s and early s Richards, pp. At that time 70 percent of the tribal women who held jobs worked as domestics in off-reservation homes. This put them in the position of interacting with upper- and middle-class families in home environments that exposed them to radio and television programs, non-Indian lifestyles, modern home appliances, and even different types of foods.
Onondaga men, on the other hand, worked primarily in factories or on construction sites. Although they interacted with non-Indian men, there was little exchange of cultural information. Differential patterns of acculturation resulted, in which the women were more comfortable and successful in relating to non-Indian agencies, including law enforcement.
Economic activity varies markedly among the various Iroquois reservations. For example, the Onondaga reservation does not offer services for tourists, but the Mohawk welcome tourists to their museum and marinas. The Great Peace forged by Deganawidah and Hiawatha produced an unwritten but clearly defined framework for the Iroquois Confederacy a written constitution was developed about Three principles, each with dual meanings, formed the foundation of the League government.
The Good Word signified righteousness in action as well as in thought and speech; it also required justice through the balancing of rights and obligations. The principle of Health referred to maintaining a sound mind in a sound body; it also involved peace among individuals and between groups. Thirdly, Power meant physical, military, or civil authority; it also denoted spiritual power.
The founders envisioned the resulting peace spreading beyond the original League members, so that eventually all people would live in cooperation. Law and order remained the internal concern of each tribe, but the League legally prohibited cannibalism. Under the structure of the Confederacy, the 50 clan chiefs called sachems from all the tribes came together to confer about questions of common concern. The successor of the Onondaga chief Todadaho served as a chairman who oversaw the discussion, which continued until a unanimous decision was reached.
If no consensus could be achieved, each tribe was free to follow an independent course on that matter.
The League functioned well for generations, fostering peace among the Six Nations. Even when the tribes failed to agree regarding an external dispute, such as one between the French and the Dutch, they would find a way to fight their respective enemies without confronting another League tribe.
However, they were unable to do this during the American Revolution. The Confederacy nearly collapsed in the wake of that war, and traditionalists are still trying to rebuild it. During the latter half of the twentieth century, it has strengthened significantly. In the Mohawk living within the United States officially discarded their traditional clan-based structure and established an elective tribal government. In a faction of Seneca instituted a similar change, establishing the Seneca Nation.
Other tribes eventually followed suit, either abandoning their ancestral governments or modifying them to incorporate elections. Traditionalists clung to the ancient structure, however, and today two competing sets of governments exist on several reservations.
Violence occasionally erupts between the opposing factions. The United States government has tried in various ways to relocate, assimilate, or disband Indian tribes.
A core group of the Iroquois people has steadfastly resisted these efforts. In some Seneca and Cayuga moved to Indian Territory now Oklahoma as part of the federal removal effort; other Iroquois factions held their ground until the policy was overturned in and ownership of some of the Seneca land was restored.
In Congress passed legislation conferring U. The Iroquois have actively worked to reclaim sacred artifacts and ancestral remains from museums. In a moratorium was enacted prohibiting archaeologists from excavating native burial sites in New York state; tribal members would be notified to arrange proper reburials for remains unearthed accidentally. Years of effort were rewarded in the early s when the Smithsonian Institution and its National Museum of the American Indian committed to returning human remains, burial artifacts, sacred objects, and other articles of cultural patrimony to Indian tribes.
Although disputed by some, there is significant evidence that the Iroquois Confederacy served as a model or inspiration for the U. Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine were well acquainted with the League. John Rutledge, chairman of the committee that wrote the first draft of the Constitution, began the process by quoting some passages from the Haudenosaunee Great Law. The Iroquois form of government was based on democracy and personal freedom, and included elements equivalent to the modern political tools of initiative, referendum, and recall.
Many Iroquois people have made notable contributions to society and culture that transcend political boundaries. A dramatic example is Oren Lyons — , an Onondaga chief who has led political delegations to numerous countries in support of the rights of indigenous people. He was a successful amateur boxer in both the U. Army and in the Golden Gloves competition. He worked as a commercial artist for several years before returning to the reservation to assume his position as faithkeeper.
In he became the first indigenous leader to have addressed the United Nations General Assembly. Parker Seneca, was a leading authority on Iroquois culture as well as museum administration.
He wrote 14 major books and hundreds of articles. He has written extensively on the Iroquois philosophy and approach to government. He founded Akwesasne Notes, a quarterly activist magazine, and the Indigenous Press Network, a computerized news service focusing on Indian affairs. She has been involved with Poets-in-the-Schools programs in at least seven states and has taught at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.
Bennett Oneida and Louis R. Mohawk served in the s and early s as commissioners of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. Her health-related writings have appeared in national magazines as well as in medical books. She also lectures and teaches workshops on the topic of disabilities. Tahnahga Mohawk has a degree in Rehabilitation Counseling; she incorporates traditional Native American healing methods into her work with chemical dependency.
She also uses her talent as a poet and storyteller to show Indian youth how to use visions and dreaming to enhance their lives. His watercolor paintings include a series on Iroquois culture, and he has also documented the culture through photography. Since the early s, he has curated numerous art shows, prepared museum exhibits for such clients as the Smithsonian Institution, and written many articles about history and art. He is described as having "a distinctive voice, one shaped by the rhythms of Mohawk life and speech, yet one which defines and moves beyond cultural boundaries" Joseph Bruchac, New Voices from the Longhouse: Greenfield Review Press, ] p.
Daniel Thompson Mohawk, — has been a photographer, graphic artist, and editor of several publications including the Northeast Indian Quarterly published by Cornell University. He writes poetry in both English and Mohawk and is working to devise an improved written form for the Mohawk language. He has also served as news director for the Mohawk radio station.
As an artist, in she created a technique incorporating ink and acrylic paint, which she employed in her renderings of Native American and wildlife themes. Tuscarora sculptor Duffy Wilson works in both wood and stone. Alex Jacobs Mohawk , whose sculptures, paintings, and prints can be found in New York galleries, has had his written works included in several Native American poetry and literature anthologies. Siverheels was an actor perhaps best known for his portrayal of Tonto, the loyal Indian sidekick to the Lone Ranger series, which ran from to His noted performances include his depiction of the Apache Indian chief, Geronimo, in Broken Arrow , a film acclaimed by many as the first picture to portray Native Americans in a sympathetic light, as well as three "Lone Ranger" films.
Farmer appeared in the movies Friday the Thirteenth and Police Academy. He also appeared on the television series Miami Vice and China Beach. After , Farmer began lecturing on Native American culture and issues on many campuses in the United States and Canada, focusing on media, environmental, and social topics relevant to Native communities. In , Farmer had a role in the well-received film Smoke Signals. Graham Greene Oneida, is a film actor who has found success in both Canada and the United States.
Greene is one of the most visible Native American actors working on the stage and in film today. He is best known for his roles in Dances with Wolves , for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, and Thunderheart Greene also appeared in the films Maverick and Die Hard: With a Vengeance, as well as on the television series Northern Exposure.
Quarterly publication that prints news and special interest pieces about the Seneca Nation. Box , Salamanca, New York Radio station owned and operated by the Mohawk tribe on the St. Regis Reservation in New York. It broadcasts music 24 hours a day, including country, adult contemporary, rock, and blues segments. In addition, it airs hourly local news summaries, community announcements sometimes in Mohawk or French three times a day, and live coverage of local lacrosse games. Displays traditional Mohawk artifacts and basketry, contemporary Iroquois artifacts, and ethnological exhibitions.
Features the history of the Iroquois and displays contemporary arts and crafts. A library is available for research. Displays artifacts and maintains the only completely excavated and staked-out Iroquois village in the United States.
Preserves the culture of the Wisconsin tribe and serves as a point of contact for the Oneida Reservation. Offers changing exhibits as well as a permanent display, "At the Western Door," that focuses on relations between the Seneca Indians and European colonists. Also on display are a furnished s Seneca cabin, six life-size figure tableaus, and over 2, artifacts.
Box , Rochester, New York Located on the Allegany Reservation, this museum houses , articles portraying the life and culture of the Seneca and other Iroquois Indians, including wampum belts, costumes, games, and modern art.
The European and the Indian: Oxford University Press, A Basic Call to Consciousness. New Voices from the Longhouse: An Anthology of Contemporary Iroquois Writing.
Greenfield Review Press, The Great Law and the Long-house: A Political History of the Iroquois Confederacy. University of Oklahoma Press, An Anthology, edited by W. AMS Press, reprint of edition.
Morgan on Iroquois Material Culture. University of Arizona Press, Language The six Iroquoian dialects are similar enough to allow easy conversation. MARRIAGE Traditionally, a man and woman wishing to marry would tell their parents, who would arrange a joint meeting of relatives to discuss the suitability of the two people for marriage to each other. Religion From ancient times the Haudenosaunee believed that a powerful spirit called Orenda permeated the universe.
Politics and Government The Great Peace forged by Deganawidah and Hiawatha produced an unwritten but clearly defined framework for the Iroquois Confederacy a written constitution was developed about World War II involved 61 countries with 1. Fifty million people lost their lives and hundreds of millions people were injured. After World War One ended in , Germany had to give up land and was banned from having armed forces. In the German people voted for a leader named Adolf Hitler , who led a political party in Germany called the National Socialists or Nazis.
Hitler promised to make his country great again and quickly began to arm Germany again and to seize land from other countries. Shortly before 5am on Friday 1st September, , German forces stormed the Polish frontier.
Tanks and motorised troops raced into the country over ground, supported by Stuka dive bombers overhead. A total of 1.
For almost six years from to Britain fought the toughest war it had ever experienced. World War II was total war - every person, every business, every service was involved. Britain did not fight alone, the war also involved many countries. World War II involved 61 countries with
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